1316 AD

14th Century Mamluk Qur’an

About its history

  • A Qur’an from the holdings of the Tripoli Endowments, dating back to the royal era, based on the date recorded in Hard al-Matn, which is the year 715 AH.
  • It was written in the era of ((The Mamluk Sultan Abu al-Ma’ali Nasir al-Din Muhammad Ibn al-Mansur Qalawun)) and that date coincides with the date of the Sultan’s order to build the interior corridors overlooking the courtyard of the mosque.
  • The Qur’an was transferred to the Awqaf Department of Tripoli and the Levant for an unknown period of time.
  • The Qur’an was subjected to a previous restoration process more than a hundred years ago, based on the quality of the paper and adhesive used in that restoration, then it was cut and rebound again more than forty years ago.
  • This restoration and cutting led to severe damage and destruction of many of the features and artistic elements that make up this manuscript.
  • The Holy Qur’an consists of 346 pages with dimensions of 32 widths – 45.2 lengths – 11.5 thicknesses of the Qur’an.

A – Manifestations of damage to the leather cover of the Qur’an

The updated cover of the Qur’an is completely damaged and is not suitable for preserving the manuscript.

B – Signs of damage to the manuscript (TEXT BOOK)

  • He cut all the edges of the Qur’an, which resulted in the loss of a large part of the original gilded decorations in the manuscript’s frames, by 1.1 cm from the top, 0.9 cm from the bottom and 2.6 cm from the edge of the manuscript.
  • A restoration procedure that exceeds the area of ​​​​the leaves in a distorted way by weight.
  • Covering many elements of the original manuscript by modern restoration.
  • The loss of the original binding of the manuscript to replace it in the binding stage previously carried out for the manuscript, coinciding with the cutting.
  • Various lacerations in the inner papers of the Qur’an and severe weakness in the edges of the papers.
  • Damage and insect holes in the heel.
  • Loss of all the features of the original stitching of the manuscript and the original plot and the loss of the lining papers.
  • Diversity of earthen dirt, the presence of water spots of different density on many pages of the manuscript.
  • Damage to the inks of many pages caused by the dissolution of the original inks, especially the colored water-stains.
  •  Damage and destruction of the distinguished pages, rich in ornaments and gilding, at the beginning and end of the manuscript.

Renovation, binding and maintenance steps

1- Restoration

  • Preliminary cleaning of the manuscript
  • Undo the old stitching with a map of the manuscript’s lieutenant and remove the calcified glue on the heel of the manuscript’s lieutenant
  • Documenting the condition of the manuscript with the decoding process using a prepared form for all possible damage appearances
  • Deep stains and stains treatment
  • Remove previous restoration
  • Remove the remnants of the glue used to install the previous restoration
  • Manufacture of papers matching the color and thickness used in the manuscript to be used for completion
  • Completing missing papers and strengthening the edges of weak papers
  • Reinforcement of the heels of corroded leaves in the middle of the lieutenant

2- Binding

  • Re-stitching the manuscript according to the old technique used in its manufacture, by following the documentation map prepared during decoding.
  • Reconstruction of the old sewing thread according to the old technique
  • Making a new cover of natural leather commensurate with the size of the manuscript and according to the historical style used in that Mamluk era, taking into account the implementation of the same historical imprints and decorations on the cover, or reusing one of the old covers suitable for a Mamluk manuscript.
  • The inner lining of the envelope is made of natural cotton paper
  • Sewing the Holy Qur’an and sewing the colored plot using suitable threads
  • Assembling the Qur’an with the cover after completing the restoration and binding
  • Making a museum display stand suitable for the size of the Quran and display bookcases.